Apache2 has growing demand among Linux Hosting consumers. For installing Apache2 you need to enter the following command at a terminal prompt.
sudo apt-get install apache2
Further more you need to place directives in plain text configuration files, these directives are separated between the following shown files and directories
- apache2.conf: This is the main Apache2 configuration file. Contains settings that are global to Apache2.
- conf.d: This contains configuration files which are applicable globally to Apache2 and some other packages which can be used by Apache2 for addition or symlinking files to this directory.
- envvars: Apache2 environment variable are set in this file.
- httpd.conf: Named after the httpd daemon, this was the Apache2 configuration file, it can be used for particular configuration option which globally affects Apache2.
- mods-available: Not only for loading modules but also for their configuration, this file can be utilized. (Only few specific and not all of the modules are included it this file)
- mods-enabled: This file has the ability to hold symlinks of files situated at /etc/apache2/mods-available, and this makes it possible to enable the symlinked file enabled at the next time Apache2 is restarted.
- ports.conf: Herea are the directives which analyze, which TCP ports Apache2 is listening currently.
- sites-available: Configuration files for Apache2 Virtual Hosts can be found in this directory. These virtual hosts permit Apache2 to get configured for more than one website which have their own separate configuration settings.
- Sites-enabled: similar to ‘mods-enabled’ here one can find symlinks at /etc/apache2/sites-available directory, also when a particular configuration file in ‘sites-enabled is found symlinked, the website configured by it can be kept active when the Apache2 is restarted.
As most of use know and WordPress is the most popular platform for building websites and blogs. While working in wordpress many times you need to upload the data. This data can be of any type like an application file, an image or any video. The default limit set for such uploads is 8 megabytes. Experienced webmasters who has hosted there websites with large web hosting resources, know very well that many times the data to be uploaded can be larger than 8 megabytes and fortunately one can increase this 8 megabytes limit in wordpress. Many webmaster try to do it by making changes in ‘.htaccess‘ file, but this doesn’t work always. I would like to share following simple method to extend the maximum upload file size limit in wordpress.
- Crate a ‘php.ini’ file and upload it in to ‘/wp-admin’ folder.
- Then add the following code
memory_limit = 28M
upload_max_filesize = 28M
post_max_size = 28M
file_uploads = On
Here I have used 28 megabytes for just a example and you can replace with your desired limit to be set for maximum upload file size limit in wordpress.
Drupal is one of the most popular CMS on web hosting accounts. When you are new to Drupal and you try to modify the code of a module directly so that you can add some features, In such situations you should be able to create several nodes from a single form. While doing this most of the newbies forget that one should never try to modify a core or make any changes directly to modules. You can either implement changes using hook_ and theme_architecture and if these are not supported then the safest option is to copy the function in which you want to make changes, and override it. This way the changes will remain limited up to your code and won’t affect after you override a module or Drupal core.
There are two ways to create a new Drupal Node or to get a newer Node Identifier. You can select one of the two you depending on your choice.
hook_nodeapi() – This hook is not reserved for any node modules, but still it allows changes in modules which affect on nodes, despite that module defines the node. One can turn off a particular operation of a newly created node and run other function as per requirements. If you want to repeat it when the nodes are saved then you can also use the ‘update’ operation.
By using ‘hook_form_alter ()’ you can perform many alterations before rendering a form. Another well known user of this hook is for addition of form elements to the node form. When you are altering a node form, at that time the node object is retrieved from $form['#node']. Also remember that ‘hook_form_alter()’ works for all forms and if you want to alter a specific form then you need to use ‘hook_form_FORM_ID_alter()’ this hook.
Rsync is a great utility to manage downloads of transformation of Linux hosting servers and it is very easy to set up on a web hosting server. After technically studying it one comes to know that it copies only diffs of files which have been actually changed and compressed, through SSH. And this copying process is conducted without any scripted FTP session or any other format of file transfer script.
Following are a few concepts explained which are involved in ‘Rsync’ operations.
Diffs – Not the whole file, but only the changed portion of those files are transferred. This selective transformation makes the speed of update process faster. Unlike ‘Diffs’ FTP transfers the entire file though the change is very tiny.
Compression – The transferred small portions (Diffs) of the files are compressed while the transformation process is going on and this reduces the time required for transferring the Diffs. This also reduces the load on networks used for transformation.
SSH Encryption – With ‘Rsync’ security is provided on (a) higher level than the FTP because the stream from ‘Rsync’ is passed through the ssh protocol which encrypts your session and not the RSH.
Rsync can not be used with a windows web hosting server so one should approach other suitable utilities like ‘Robocopy’ or ‘Richcopy’.
In previous posts we saw Cursor Movement commands, Text Modification commands, and commands used in Input Mode. In this post I would like to share the last line mode commands used in a VIM editor.
So following are the last line commands of VIM editor.
w – this command is used to save the file with the same name when you opened it to edit it.
w filename - This command works as same as we use ‘save as’ with windows applications, which allows you to save the new copy of a file with your desired name. The substitute command to ‘w filename’ is ‘sav filename’, the same task of saving a copy of file with other name can be achieved by using ‘sav filename’ command.
n.m w filename - this command is used for saving the content of line number ‘n’ to ‘m’ to the given file name. If you want to refer to the last line number (whatever it may be) then you should use ‘$’ instead of ‘m’.
e filename – This command is used to edit another file than the current one. It’s handy for toggling among the multiple files when used with the following ‘e#’ command.
e# – After using ‘e filename’ when you want to come back to previous file then you should use ‘e#’ command.
e! – This command is used to discard the changes made to a file.
r filename – This command reads the contents from a file and inserts it below the current line.
So these were last line VIM commands used to operate a Linux hosting server.
Linux is becoming popular day by day as an operating system for managing web hosting services among webmasters. Due to its cost effectiveness Linux Hosting services are preferred on a large scale. As Linux is a command driven language, one should be very well familiar with the various editors which are used while operating a linux based computer system. VIM is known as one of the most popular editor among Linux users. VIM editor is an advance version of VI and it plays an important role while handling the different tags. One major advantage of using VIM editor on a Linux server is ‘it consumes very less amount of resources of the system. Surprisingly VIM also works without any interruption on a slow speed network also. There is no use of computer mouse can be experienced while working with the VIM. Many similarities can be found between the Microsoft based ‘‘Notepad’ and VIM.
VIM Operation can be divided into main three modes as following.
Command Mode :- By default you come to this mode when you start the VIM. In this mode, input text is treated as command, most of these commands can be entered with a single text character. One need to take care of upper and lower case while using these commands as they are case sensitive. Few commands can be used with combination or in a prefixed way with qualifiers.
Input Mode :- This mode enables you to use the all characters as a plain text, whichever key (except ‘Esc’) you press is treated as a text input by VIM. The text is not treated a command hence the only way to exit from the Input mode is pressing ‘Esc’ key. By pressing ‘Esc’ key you return to ‘Command Mode’
Last Line Mode :- Commands to the ex editor, on which the VIM is based, can be entered in this mode. You need to type colon ‘:’ from the Command Mode for entering in to Last Line Mode. ‘:’ and your typed text is shown on the last line of your screen and that’s why this mode is called Last Line Mode.
In today’s hosting market there are lot of web Hosting providers available with attractive discounts and special offer to drive the customers towards their web hosting companies. When a person is totally new to all this then obviously he get confused about all these things and marketing slogans of Web Hosting companies, and if the he is weak in terms of technical knowledge then things become worse for him. Following are some features I would like to share with these type of people so that they can get exact idea about his needs and available options in the market.
These are the very basic but most important tools to be included in hosting services, cPanel is one of the the best control panel for the purpose of managing website and analyze many things about that particular website. Important tasks like creation of new email Ids, parking multiple domains, taking and restoring backups of data are performed throughout the cPanel.
This is another great utility which is used for installation of various web applications. Interface becomes very easy because of Fantastico, web applications like forums, blogs, other open source tools can be installed with a few clicks.
Newbies usually get confused when they don’t have enough knowledge about Add-on domains feature which makes it possible to host many website within a single web hosting account. One can add multiple domains and sub-domains using a single shared hosting account.
Shopping carts are known as application specially developed for e-commerce websites. Because of shopping carts a webmaster can sell products online and receive payments through online transactions.
Dedicated IP address
Many people have heard about dedicated hosting and they think that dedicated IP concept is related to it only, but the fact is different as dedicated IP can be obtained to keep your website’s identity unique one which helps your website to remain unrelated from other websites which may be fraud or of spammer’s hence may harmful for sharing the same IP address with them. Dedicated IPs are also beneficial from search engine optimization point of view.
There are many other features involved in a web hosting package but here I feel the above one to be highlighted specially while making a web hosting deal.
If you are facing an issue wherein PHP scripts does not show the correct time, the reason for this can be mostly said to be because your web hosting server is based in a different time zone. The issue can be simply sorted out by changing the date.timezone setting in PHP.
As per your location you can set the date.timezone value in PHP by adding the below to your php.in file :
ate.timezone = “Asia/Calcutta”
The example is stated assuming that you would like to set the timezone for your PHP script to Asia/Calcutta.
If you face any issues while executing the above, you can contact your web hosting service provider for further assistance on the same.
The ways to connect by FTP to a host for your web hosting account are mentioned below :
The most simple way to connect is by using IE which has proved to the best in regards to FTP support. For connecting with your browser, you need to use the below mentioned address :
If your FTP user to connect is similar to firstname.lastname@example.org, then you will have to make sure that you URL encode it like the below mentioned :
This address is URL encoded and comes from YourFtpUser@YourDomain.com where @ has been substituted with %40, which is the ASCII code for @.
Generally you would require to change your MySQL collation in order to solve any problems with foreign character encodings. The very common step that can be taken here is to change your MySQL collation from latin1 to utf8. The same can be changes by using phpMyAdmin and the by following the below mentioned steps :
1. First you need to login to your cPanel account provided with your web hosting account and then click on phpMyAdmin icon located in the Database Box.
2. Now you need to select the Database you would want to manage from the drop down menu located on the left.
3. Then click on the Operations tab in the top menu of your phpMyAdmin
4. Once you click on Operations you will see at the bottom of the page the collation option. You need to now select a collation from the drop down menu and click on the Go button.
Please be informed that after you change the collation of a database only the new tables will be created with the new collation. All the other tables will remain with the collation, they were initially created with.